NABOKV-L post 0010930, Sun, 16 Jan 2005 17:39:29 -0800

Fw: Ada, incest, Anatolia, Alexander, Sultans...

----- Original Message -----
From: Jansy Berndt de Souza Mello
To: don barton johnson
Sent: Sunday, January 16, 2005 5:44 AM
Subject: Ada, incest, Anatolia, Alexander, Sultans...

Researched through Google after Orchid´s Ada hint :

Anatolia, Mausoios/Mausolos/Mausoleum/Artemisia/Ada

Caria broke away from Sardis in 412 B.C. to become its own suzerainty with Hyssaldaomus from Mylasa appointed as its satrap. When he died in 387 B.C., his son Hecatomnos ascended to the throne, whereas he was succeeded to the throne by his eldest son, Mausolos in 377 B.C. Mausolos ruled over W. Anatolia and made a number of cities prosperous in the Carian region, but most importantly was the fact that he moved the capital of Caria from Milas to Halicarnassos in 367 B.C. In order for this city to expand, he brought the inhabitants of six of the eight Lelegian cities here, and by encircling the city with walls, he had it adorned with palaces, a theater and temples. Mausolos died in 353 B.C. after ruling for 24 years, whereby he was succeeded by his wife and sister, Artemisia II. First she conquered a rebellious Rhodes and convinced the Rhodians to accept her as ruler, then later she continued with the construction of her husband's monumental tomb that he began in 355, but died in 351, before its completion in 340. Construction had actually stopped for some time as there was no money left in the Treasury, but the artists worked without pay for the sake of monument tomb artistry and were able to finish it by raising sufficient funds. The tomb, known as the Mausoleum, was destined to become one of the Seven Wonders of the World. According to information recorded by Roman historian Pliny, the tomb consisted of four sections; there was a high base at the lowest level, a gallery of 36 columns upon it, and a roof of 24 steps upon which the statues of Mausolos and his wife were placed. The architect of this 50 m. high mausoleum was Pytheos, and the relief engravings were chiseled by famous sculptors such as Scopas (E side). Leochares (W side), Bryfl (N side) and Timotheos (S side). Unfortunately. this huge tomb had remained standing only until the 14th century, when an earthquake knocked it don. However, the most significant harm was caused by the Knights of Rhodes in the year 1402. when they erected the wails of the castle we see today by plundering the ashlar blocks from the memorial tomb. In 1846, the Ottoman Sultan Abdulmecit passed a decree that permitted the British Ambassador Lord Stratford Canning to ship the friezes of Mausoios that he had seen in the Bodrum Castle to the British Museum. Newton, who was directing excavation work at the time, shipped off the remaining frieze fragments as well as the statues of both Mausolos and his wife Artemisia which were originally on the top of the Mausoleum, to the British Museum in 1857. Today, what remains of this memorial's foundation. measuring 32 x 38 m. can be seen In a field measuring 242.5 x 105 m. next to the road to Gümbet.

When Queen Artemlsia died in 351 B.C.. Idileus ascended to the throne whereby he was succeeded by Ada in 344. However, she was deposed by her younger brother Pixodaros, who exiled Ada to Allnda. When Alexander entered Anatoila in 334. he found Ada in Alinda, whereby she proclaimed him to be her adopted son and In return, he reinstated her to the
Halicarnassos throne.

After Alexander's death, the region was ruled by Lysimachos in 301 and then later on by the Ptolemic dynasty. In 189 B.C., Halicarnassos was forced to become a subject of Rhodes, then over to the Pergamon Kingdom in 167 B.C. The city came under Roman rule after 133 B.C. While the Roman states were being reorganized in the 4th century A.D., Caria constituted a separate state, whereas Halicarnassos became the Archbishopric under the administration of the Aphrodisias Metropolitan.

After the Turks entered Anatolia in 1071, they ater began establishing provinces in the regions they had settled. As a matter of fact, the Turks under command of Mentese Bey took over this region and the established the Mentese Province in 1274. This area was put under Ottoman rule once and for all during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent